Ultra structure of Animal Cell: Cell Division, Mitosis and Meiosis.
Structure and function of the following cell orgtanelles: (i) Plasma Membrane: Membrane, Transport of small molecules, Cell Junctions, Cell adhesion, (ii) Cytoskeleton, (iii) Golgi Complex, (iv) Lysosomes, (v) Role of mitochondria in cellular energy, transactions, (vi) Chromosomes – Structure and type, Salivary gland chromosomes.
Animal Phsiology, Behaviour and Ecology Animal Physiology pertaining to:
Nutrition: Types of nutrition in animals, autotrophic – Heterotrophic, vitamins and minerals.
Digestion in Mammals
Respiration: Brief account of types of respiratory mechanism, respiratory pigments, gas transport with reference to mammals.
Circulation: Composition and functions of blood, co-agulation of blood; Myogenic and Neurogenic hearts, mammalian heart – structure and function, Blood pressure and its role and exchange of materials in capillaries,
Osmo-regulation: Pertaining to aquatic animals only.
Excretion: (i) Classification of animals based on end products of excretion, (2) Formation of nitrogen waste. (3) Nephron: Structure and Function.
Nervous transmission: Structure of neuron, action-potential, production and propagation of nerve impulse and synaptic transmission.
Endocrine glands of Mammals: Pineal body, Hypophysis, Hypothalamus, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Thymus, Adrenal Gastro intestinal, Pancreas, Testis and ovary.
Hormonal control of reproduction in mammals.
Concept of Homeostasis.
Taxis, reflexes, instinctive behaviour, motivatived behaviour, learning, imprinting, habituation, classical conditioning, instrumental conditioning trial and error learning, physiology and phylogeny of learning, biological rhythms -circadian, lunar and circannual rhythms.
Physico-chemical factors of the animal Environment: Temperature, light, pressure, atmospheric gass i.e.; oxygen and carbon dioxide; Biogeochemical cycles: nitrogen, carbon and phosphorus cycles.
Animal community and Animal population: Ecosystems (Ecological succession, Ecological pyramids, energy flow in an eco system) – Animal associations: Parasitism, Commensalism, Symbiosis ; Environments and adaptive features of animals inhabiting / deep sea, cave, and desert.
Wild life, wild life sanctuaries and national parks of India.
Biology of Chordates, Genetics, Evolution and Zoogeography
General characters and outline classification upto the level of order.
Protochordata: (a) Structure and Affinities of Amphioxus; (b) Structure Life history of an Ascidian.
Cyclostomata: General characters of cyclostomes and differences between Myxin & Petromyzon.
Comparative study of the following systems with reference to Scoliodon (pisces), Rana (Amphibia) calotes (Reptilia), Columba (Aves) and Lagomorpha (Mammalian) – (a) Skeletal system: Heart and aortic arches; (d) Nervous system – Brain.
General Topics: (i) Parental care in Amphibia; (ii) Dentition in Mammals.
Developmental Biology: (i) Gastrulation in amphioxus, Frog andChick; (ii) Development of chick upto 24 hrs., (iii) Foetal membrances of chick, (iv) Placenta in Mammals (Formation and types).
Gene interaction with 3 examples
Sex linked inheritance
Blood group inheritance
Fine structure of gene, Operon/ concept, Cloning, Lethal genes
Chromosomal Aberration and human diseases.
Evolution and Zoogeography.
Modern synthetic theory of Evolution, Mutations, Genetic basis of Evolution, Genetic Drift (Hardy Weinberg’s Law), Isolation and speciation.
Characteristics of the following Zoogeographic regions and their fauna: (i) Oriental regions, (ii) Ethiopian Region, (iii) Australian Region.